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Nigerian Law

Nigerian Judicial Precedents as a Source of Nigerian Law

By Leesi Ebenezer Mitee



INTRODUCTION

Judicial precedents may be defined as “previous judgments or decisions officially documented by the court, usually published

in law reports, used as legal authorities for deciding subsequent cases in line with their rationes decidendi via the common law doctrine of stare decisis.” [1]

The decisions of Nigerian courts constitute a very important source of Nigerian law. Its importance derives from the increasing relevance of Legal Realism in the fashion of American jurisprudence. We have already seen that according to Legal Realism, the provisions of statutes are not settled law until they have received the blessing of judicial pronouncement as to their meaning, nature, and scope. It was Gray, a prominent American Realist, who said: “it is the courts that put life into the dead words of statutes.” That obsession with case law led to the evolution of jurimetrics.

Whilst we may readily appreciate the importance of case law as a source of Nigerian law, we may not be able to subscribe to the strict position of American Realists.

THE DOCTRINE OF STARE DECISIS IN NIGERIA

The doctrine of binding precedent or stare decisis has been rightly described by Professor Ezejiofor [2] as “a necessary judicial practice in any system that operates the common law.” The doctrine recognises the need to have a definite hierarchy of courts in a common-law legal system, and advocates that the decisions of superior courts in the system shall be binding on lower courts within the same system.

For this doctrine to operate there must exist a settled and universally acceptable hierarchy of courts as well as easily accessible, comprehensive, regular, and reliable Law Reports containing the decisions of the courts.

Oputa JSC (one of the most articulate and respected Judges Nigeria has ever had) extolled the importance of the time-honoured doctrine of stare decisis or judicial precedent in the Supreme Court case of Eperokun v University of Lagos (1986) 4 NWLR (Part 34) 162 at 193 thus:

“Standing by a previous decision which has not been proved to be perverse, or to have been decided per incuriam or proved to be faulty legally or procedurally has a lot of advantages. It fosters stability and enhances the development of a consistent and coherent body of law. In addition, it preserves continuity and manifest respect for the past. It also assures equality of treatment for litigants similarly situated. It likewise spares the Judges the task of re-examining rules of law, or principles, with each succeeding case, and finally it affords the law a desirable measure of predictability.”

Referring to Justice Oputa’s statement above, Kalgo JSC delivering the lead judgment of the Supreme Court on Friday, 16 February 2001, in Global Transport Oceanico S. A. v Free Enterprises Nigeria Ltd  (2001) FWLR (Part 40) 1706 at 1722, declared: “I entirely agree with this statement and wish to add that it also helps to maintain some legal order within judicial systems.” See also Batalha v West African Construction Company Ltd (2002) FWLR (Part 109) 1612 at 1628 where the Court of Appeal stressed the need to uphold the time-honoured doctrine.

Hierarchy of Nigerian Courts

In Nigeria, a settled hierarchy of courts exists. Section 6 of the Constitution of the  Federal  Republic of Nigeria 1999,  treading the  path of section 6 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1979, provides for the Nigerian judicial system, which is pyramidal in shape, as follows:


(a) One Supreme Court as the highest Court of the land.

(b) Just below the Supreme Court is one Court of Appeal, having as at present ten Divisions in some States of the Federation, including locations in the following cities: Abuja, Benin, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Kaduna, Jos, Lagos, and Port Harcourt.

(c) Below the Court of Appeal are the following courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction: Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja; Customary Court of Appeal and Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja; High Court of a State; Customary Court of Appeal and Sharia Court of Appeal of a State.

(d) Below these courts are the Magistrates’ Courts and District Courts.

(e) The lowest courts are Customary and Area Courts.

Numbers (a) – (c), by virtue of section 6(3) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, are the only superior courts of record in Nigeria, and detailed provisions regulating their establishment, jurisdiction, constitution, and direction as to practice and procedure are contained in sections 230 – 284 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. All the courts listed above are the regular courts.

There are also special courts like Courts-martial, Tribunals of Inquiry, Rent Tribunals, Coroners’ Inquests, Juvenile Courts, etc. whose jurisdiction, rules, and operation are specially regulated by the Laws establishing them.

Law Reports in Nigeria

Law Reports are the authentic records of the full verbatim documentation of the decisions or judgments of courts of law in respect of matters brought before them for resolution, usually published in bound volumes for public use. [3]

According to Professor Ezejiofor, [4] the history of systematic law reporting in Nigeria dates back to 1916 when the publication of the Nigerian Law Reports (NLR) under the official sponsorship of the Judicial Department was commenced. The West African Court of Appeal Law Reports (WACA) were published between 1933 and 1955. After 1955, the Federal Supreme Court Reports (FSC) as well as the Law Reports of Lagos (LLR) and the different Regions – Western Region of Nigeria Law Reports (WRNLR), Northern Region of Nigeria Law Reports (NRNLR), and Eastern Region of Nigeria Law Reports (ENLR or ERLR) were published.

Other Law Reports in Nigeria include the following:  All Nigeria Law Reports (All NLR); Nigerian Monthly Law Reports (NMLR); Federation of Nigeria Law Reports (FNLR); University of Ife Law Reports (UILR); and The Nigerian Commercial Law Reports (NCLR) edited by Allan Milner.

Recently, Chief Gani Fawehinmi revolutionised law reporting in   Nigeria by publishing several invaluable Law Reports including the   Supreme Court of Nigeria Law Reports (SCNLR); Commercial Law Reports (CLR); Nigerian Constitutional Law Reports (NCLR); and of course, the epoch-making Nigerian Weekly Law Reports (NWLR) published first in 1985, which he has sustained until today. In the year 2000, two other Weekly Law Reports went into circulation: Federation Weekly Law Reports (FWLR) with Taiwo Kupolati as Editor-in-chief, and Weekly Law Reports of Nigeria (WRN) with Femi Falana, a widely-acclaimed Human Rights activist, as Editor-in-chief. Other important recent Law Reports include the Nigerian Supreme Court Cases (NSCC) in various Volumes with Deji Sasegbon, one of the leading Nigerian Law publishers, as Editor-in-chief; Supreme Court of Nigeria Judgments (SCNJ); Kings Law Reports (KLR), and a rebirth of the Judgments of the Supreme Court of Nigeria (SC). Unfortunately, two Law Reports in Nigeria share the same citation: The Nigerian Commercial Law Reports (NCLR) edited by Allan Milner, and Nigerian Constitutional Law Reports (NCLR) edited by Chief Gani Fawehinmi.

We have recorded appreciable success in law reporting in this country in recent times, compared with what obtained in the past. However, there is still a plethora of decisions that are denied their inherent right to publication, especially major decisions of our numerous High Courts, most of which never went, and will not go, on appeal to the Court of Appeal. Something has to be done about this with utmost urgency.

What constitutes Binding Precedents

It is not every decision of a court that constitutes a binding precedent which lower courts will be compelled to abide by. We may clarify what constitutes binding precedents and what does not as follows:

(a) Binding Precedent is found in the Ratio Decidendi

Binding precedent is found in the ratio decidendi of a decision – the particular principle of law on which the decision was based. On Friday, 20 April 2001, Karibi-Whyte JSC, delivering the lead judgment of the Supreme Court in Dongtoe v Civil Service Commission, Plateau State (2001) FWLR (Part 50) 1639 at 1666, said: “It is true that a decision is authority for what it actually decides; and judgments should be read in the light of the facts on which they were decided.” Unfortunately, some think that what constitutes the ratio decidendi of a judicial decision is illusory, and not settled. The problem has given rise to the assertion that the ratio decidendi of a case is in fact what later cases consider it to be. It should be noted that before the ratio decidendi of a previous decision can become judicial precedent, the facts of the present case that is in the process of being decided by a lower court must be identical with, or similar to, (i.e. in pari materia with) the facts of the previous case already decided by a higher court: Anaedobe v Ofodile (2001) FWLR (Part 45) 718; Madu v Neboh (2001) FWLR (Part 52) 2247.

(b) Decisions reached per incuriam or per ignorantium are not Binding Precedents

Decisions reached per incuriam (through lack of care) or per ignorantium (through ignorance) are not binding precedents. Such decisions may have been given without applying a binding precedent, or in ignorance of a statutory provision or a rule having statutory effect, such as a rule of court, which would have affected the decision if the court had been aware of, and applied, it: Young v Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd (1944) KB 718. In a recent decision of the Supreme Court delivered on Friday, 16 February 2001, Global Transport Oceanico S. A. v Free Enterprises Nigeria Ltd  (2001) FWLR (Part 40) 1706 at 1722, Kalgo JSC delivering the lead judgment declared that decisions reached per incuriam are not included in the doctrine of stare decisis for obvious reasons and a court may depart from its earlier decision if it is satisfied that the decision was wrong and there is a need to reverse or alter it in the interest of justice.

(c) Obiter Dicta are not Binding Precedents

Obiter dicta that are observations or pronouncements of law made by the way that are not part of the ratio decidendi of a case are, generally, not binding precedent. The Court of Appeal recently defined obiter dictum as “something said by the way, such as an observation or remark made by a Judge in pronouncing an opinion upon a cause, concerning some rules, principles or application of law but which is not strictly necessary for the resolution of the dispute:” Madu v Neboh (2001) FWLR (Part 52) 2247 at 2268. The Supreme Court appears to maintain that its obiter dicta cannot be ignored by lower courts in reaching decisions, thereby introducing a momentous dimension to the authority of obiter dicta. This further compounds the illusory nature of rationes decidendi, and strengthens the opinion of Professor Ezejiofor that “the weight attached to an obiter dictum depends on the position occupied in the judicial hierarchy by the court that handed it down or the erudition of the Judge who pronounced it.” [5] The Court of Appeal held in Ikyernum v Iorkumbur (2002) FWLR (Part 110) 1908 at 1926 that one fundamental thing counsel should always keep in mind is the distinction between ratio decidendi and obiter dicta. The former (ratio decidendi) has a binding effect in judgment, while the latter (obiter dicta) are mere observations which a court is entitled to make. Even if such observations were wrong or nasty, so long as miscarriage of justice does not result therefrom, they are immaterial – they have no binding effect and go to no issue at all. [6] However, comments made by a Judge that go to the root of the decision, make it perverse. The Court of Appeal held in this case that the decision of the trial Judge was influenced by his expressions: he referred to the respondent as “son of the soil” and the appellant as “a stranger” which caused miscarriage of justice on the appellant.    

(d) Binding Precedent where there is more than one Presiding Judge

Where more than one Judge preside over a matter and they could not reach a unanimous decision, it is the majority decision (and not the minority decision) that constitutes the decision of the court and therefore the binding precedent. A dissenting decision or judgment is not the decision or judgment of the court.

(e) Binding Precedent where there are Conflicting Decisions

Where conflicting decisions of a particular higher court exist, a lower court is at liberty to choose one of them which it considers to be correct, with reasons for so doing: National Electric Power Authority v Onah (1997) 1 NWLR (Part 484) 680.

The Authority of Binding Precedents

Binding precedents have different degrees of authority: absolute and persuasive. Decisions of higher courts have absolute authority on lower courts, while decisions of courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction (i.e. courts at the same level in the hierarchy) have only persuasive authority on similar courts within our legal system.

It may be necessary also to mention that because of the national sovereignty of our legal system, the decisions of foreign courts (including English courts) have persuasive authority only in Nigeria. Therefore, the opinion of Park, [7] that the English “House of Lords decisions present the conclusive expositions of English law, and that being so it will not be open to the Nigerian courts to depart from them,” cannot be valid in our present circumstances. The Supreme Court of Nigeria held in Kalu v Odili (1992) 6 SCNJ (Part 1) 76 at 104 that decisions of all English courts including those of the House of Lords are treated with optimum respect by all the courts in this country, but they have only persuasive effect and not binding authority in Nigerian courts.

CONCLUSION

Judicial precedents will continue to wield greater importance as a source of Nigerian law, for without precedents the law will not be capable of prediction, judicial decisions will be subject to the whims and caprices of Judges, and the basis of legal opinion and counselling will be completely eroded.

…………………………………………….

[1]  Definition by the author: Leesi Ebenezer Mitee.

[2]  In Introduction to Nigerian Law (1980), p. 14.

[3]  Definition by the author: Leesi Ebenezer Mitee.

[4]  Introduction to Nigerian Law (1980), p. 38.

[5]  Introduction to Nigerian Law (1980), p. 38.

[6]  Introduction to Nigerian Law (1980), p. 38.

[7]  See Odukwe v Ogunbiyi (1998) 6 SCNJ 102; Leedo Presidencial Motel Ltd v Bank of the North Ltd (1998) 7 SCNJ 328; Afro Continental Nigeria Ltd v Ayantuyi (1995) 12 SCNJ 1; Alakija v Abdullahi (1998) 5 SCNJ 1.


Okonkwo, C. O. (ed.). Introduction to Nigerian Law. London, Sweet & Maxwell, 1980.


Directory of Senior Advocates of Nigeria (SANs)

(3 April 1975 - 13 September 2012)

1. Chief F.R.A. Williams S.A.N. (Deceased) 3/4/75

2. Dr.N.B. Graham – Douglas S.A.N. (Deceased)  3/4/75

3. Chief Obafemi Awolowo S.A.N. (Deceased)  12/1/78

4. Chief R.A. Fani – Kayode S.A.N. (Deceased)  12/1/78

5. T.A. Bankole Oki S.A.N. 12/1/78

6. E.A. Molajo S.A.N. (Deceased) 12/1/78

7. Kehinde Sofola S.A.N. (Deceased) 12/1/78

8. Chief R.O.A. Akinjide S.A.N. 12/1/78

9. Chief G.O.K. Ajayi S.A.N. 12/1/78

10. Chief Olisa Chukura S.A.N. (Deceased) 12/1/78

11. Dr. Nwakanma Okoro S.A.N. (Deceased) 12/1/78

12. Dr. Mudiaga Odje S.A.N. (Deceased) 12/1/78

13. P.O.Balonwu S.A.N. 12/1/78

14. Professor B.O. Nwabueze S.A.N. 12/1/78

15. Dr.AugustineNnamani S.A.N. 12/1/78

16. G.C.M. Onyiuke S.A.N. (Deceased) 25/1/79

17. ChiefB. Olowofoyeku S.A.N. (Deceased) 25/1/792

© Supreme Court of Nigeria – List of Senior Advocates of Nigeria (SAN).

18. H.A. Lardner S.A.N. (Deceased) 25/1/79

19. Chike Ofodile  S.A.N. 25/1/79

20. Professor A.B. Kasumu S.A.N. 25/1/79

21. F.O. Akinrele S.A.N. 6/3/80

22. Chief Adebayo Ogunsanya S.A.N. (Deceased) 6/3/80

23. Okoi Arikpo S.A.N. (Deceased) 6/3/80

24. G.R.I Egonu S.A.N. 6/3/80

25. J.B. Majiyagbe S.A.N. 6/3/80

26. Chief Bayo Kehinde S.A.N. (Deceased) 5/3/81

27. Chief M.O.Akpofure S.A.N. 5/3/8 1

28. Chief Sobo Sowemimo S.A.N. 5/3/8 1

29. Dr. Arthur Nylander S.A.N. 5/3/8 1

30. Mrs Folake Solanke S.A.N. 5/3/81

31. A.N.Anyamene S.A.N. 28/1/82

32. H.O.T. Coker S.A.N. 28/1/82

33. Chief Efiom E.O. Ekong S.A.N. (Deceased) 2/1/82

34. Gally Brown-Peterside S.A.N. (Deceased) 28/1/82

35. Abdullahi lbrahim S.A.N. 28/1/82

36. Akin O.Sijuade S.A.N. 1983

37. Chief P.G.E. Umeadi S.A.N. 1983

38. Babatunde O.Benson S.A.N. 1983

39. A.B.C. Iketuonye S.A.N. 1983

40. Abayomi O. Sogbesan S.A.N. (Deceased) 1983

41. Chief Toye A. Coker S.A.N. (Deceased) 13/4/84

42. M.A. Agbamuche S.A.N. (Deceased) 13/4/84

43. T.I. Onafowokan S.A.N. (Deceased) 13/4/843

44. Fidelis Nwadialo S.A.N. (Deceased) 13/4/84

45. K.S. Okeaya-Inneh S.A.N. 13/4/84

46. Aihaji A.G.F. Abdulrazaq S.A.N. 3 1/7/85

47. Ladosu Ladapo S.A.N. (Deceased) 31/7/85

48. Clement O. Akpamgbo S.A.N. (Deceased) 31/7/85

49. Hon. Prince Bola Ajibola S.A.N. 5/6/86

50. Chief Akinola Adaramaja S.A.N. (Deceased) 5/6/86

51. Chief Chimezie Ikeazor S.A.N. 5/6/8 6

52. Chief Debo Akande S.A.N. (Deceased) 5/6/86

53. Solomon Asemota S.A.N. 5/6/86

54. Anthony D. Mogboh S.A.N. 25/2/87

55. Chief Afe Babalola S.A.N. 25/2/87

56. Aliyu Salman S.A.N. 25/2/87

57. T.J.O. Okpoko S.A.N. 25/2/87

58. Chief A.A. Fadayiro S.A.N. 3/5/88

59. G.A. Graham-Douglas S.A.N. 3/5/88

60. Chief C.O. Ihensekhien S.A.N. (Deceased) 3/5/88

61. E.O. Sofunde S.A.N. 3/5/88

62. L.N. Mbanefo S.A.N. 3/5/8 8

63. N.N. Anah S.A.N. 5/6/89

64. Y.A.A. Agbaje S.A.N. 5/6/89

65. Idowu Sofola S.A.N. 5/6/89

66. B.A. Ibironke S.A.N. (Deceased) 5/6/8 9

67. Mrs. P.C. Ajayi - Obe S.A.N. (Deceased) 5/6/89

68. Chief T.O.S Benson S.A.N. (Deceased) 16/7/90

69. Barrister Webber G. Egbe S.A.N. (Deceased) 16/7/90.4

70. Otunba Adeniran Ogunsanya S.A.N. (Deceased) 16/7/90

71. Dr. F.A.Ajayi S.A.N. (Deceased) 16/7/90

72. Ben Ekigwe Nwazojie S.A.N. (Deceased) 16/7/90

73. Bamidele A. Aiku S.A.N. 16/7/90

74. J.A. Taiwo Ajala S.A.N. 16/7/90

75. Chief S.M. Olakunri S.A.N. 19/7/9 1

76. Jerome H.C. Okolo S.A.N. 19/7/9 1

78. Chief F.A.Akinbesehin S.A.N. 19/7/91

79. Dr. D.D. Mowoe S.A.N. 19/7/9 1

80. Chief M.P. Ohwovoriole S.A.N. 19/7/9 1

81. Dr. Chief F.E.O. Ume S.A.N. 19/7/9 1

82. Oluwole O. Olanipekun S.A.N. 19/7/9 1

83. Alhaji Olufemi Okunnu S.A.N. 20/7/92

84. Professor C.O. Okonkwo S.A.N. 20/7/92

85. Chief Babashola Orobiyi Rhodes S.A.N. 20/7/92

86. Dr. Samson Sani Ameh S.A.N. 20/7/92

87. Jonny Chukwunweike Okonkwo S.A.N. 20/7/92

88. Chief Mike Ikenna Ahamba S.A.N. 20/7/92

89. Adegboyega Solomon Awomolo S.A.N. 20/7/92

90. Godwin Ekwusiaga Ezeuko S.A.N. 7/6/93

91. Chief George Nwokocha Ona Uwechue S.A.N. 7/6/93

92. Dr. Jacob Ogbonnaya Ibik S.A.N. 7/6/93

93. Chief P.A.O. Olorunnishola S.A.N. 7/6/93

94. Chief Funsho Akinyosoye S.A.N. 7/6/93

95. Olajide Ayodele S.A.N. 7/6/93

96. Professor Sariyu Abiodun Adesanya S.A.N. 7/6/935

97. Otunba (Mrs) C. O. Ajayi-Okunuga S.A.N. 24/4/95

98. Enechi Onyia S.A.N. 24/4/95

99. I.N. Umezuruike S.A.N. 24/4/95

100. Professor G. Ezejiofor S.A.N. 24/4/95

101. Chief Bon Nwakarna KSC S.A.N. 24/4/95

102. Tunji Ayanlaja S.A.N. 24/4/95

103. Ladi - Rotimi Williams S.A.N. 24/4/95

104. A.O.Eghobanien S.A.N. 24/4/95

105. Kayode S. Sofola S.A.N. 24/4/95

106. Chief Makanjuola Esan S.A.N. 24/4/95

107. Dr. Ilochi A. Okafor S.A.N. 24/4/95

108. O.C.J. Okocha S.A.N. 24/4/95

109. J.B. Daudu S.A.N. 24/4/95

110. Chief James Ajibola Adegoke Ige S.A.N. 24/4/95

111. Chief Akinwande Delano S.A.N. 9/9/96

112. Chief Chukwukwanmmadu Ohiri Njemanze S.A.N. 9/9/96

113. Akpan Ekong Bassey S.A.N. 9/9/96

114. Emmanuel Jadak John Toro S.A.N. 9/9/96

115. Chief Udechukwu Nnoruka Udechukwu S.A.N. 9/9/9 6

116. Prince Lateef Olasunkanmi Fagbemi S.A.N. 9/9/96

117. Chief Emmanuel Chikere Akwiwu S.A.N. 15/9/97

118. Alhaji Adisa Bashua S.A.N. 15/9/97

119. Chief Adeboye Adejumo S.A.N. 15/9/97

120. Tochukwu Onwugbufor S.A.N. 15/9/97

121. Chief Chuks Muoma S.A.N. 15/9/97

122. Kanu Godwin Agabi S.A.N. 15/9/976

123. Olujimi Olajide Oduba S.A.N. 15/9/97

124. Gabriel Ofodile S.A.N. 15/9/97

125. Bankole Olumide Aluko S.A.N. 15/9/97

126. Dr. Theophilus Chike Osanakpo S.A.N. 15/9/97

127. Charles Akinlolu Olujinmi S.A.N. 15/9/97

128. Yufus Olaolu Alli S.A.N. 15/9/97

129. Abimbola Williams (Mrs.) S.A.N.  14/9/98

130. Professor I.E. Sagay S.A.N. 14/9/98

131. Chief O.B. Onyali S.A.N. 14/9/98

132. B.M. Wifa S.A.N. 14/9/98

133. M.A.O.Okulaja S.A.N. 14/9/98

134. Professor G.A.Olawoyin S.A.N. 14/9/98

135. Murtala O. Sanni S.A.N. 14/9/98

136. C.O.I. Joseph S.A.N. 14/9/98

137. Chief E.L. Akpofure S.A.N. 14/9/98

138. Olisa Agbakoba S.A.N. 14/9/98

139. Oluwarotimi O.Akeredolu S.A.N. 14/9/98

140. Joe Kyari Gadzama S.A.N. 14/9/98

141. Chief Chidube Ezebilo S.A.N. 20/9/99

142. Prof. J.A. Omotola S.A.N. 20/9/99

143. Kola Awodein S.A.N. 20/9/99

144. Chief Bayo Ojo S.A.N. 20/9/99

145. Seyi Sowemimo S.A.N. 20/9/99

146. P.O. Jimoh-Lasisi S.A.N. 20/9/99

147. Emmanuel C. Ukala S.A.N. 20/9/99

148. Livy Uzoukwu S.A.N. 20/9/997

149. Ademola Akinrele S.A.N. 20/9/99

150. Dr. Eyimofe D. Atake S.A.N. 20/9/99

151. Yunus Ustaz Usman S.A.N. 20/9/99

152. AlexA. Izinyon S.A.N. 20/9/99

153. J.K. Jegede S.A.N. 20/9/99

154. Bayo Aluko-Olokun S.A.N. 25/9/2000

155. Dr. M.E. Ajogwu S.A.N. 25/9/2000

156. Tanimola Aderinola Molajo S.A.N. 25/9/2000

157. Awa Ukala S.A.N. 25/9/2000

158. Dr. Olukonyinsola Ajayi S.A.N. 25/9/2000

159. Chief Chike Chigbue S.A.N. 25/9/2000

160. Felix O. Fagbohungbe S.A.N. 25/9/2000

161. A.I. Idigbe S.A.N. 25/9/2000

162. Jibola A. Olanipekun S.A.N. 25/9/2000

163. Charles Uwensuyi-Edosomwan S.A.N. 25/9/2000

164. Rickey Tarfa S.A.N. 25/9/2000

165. Chief Gani Fawehinmi S.A.N. 10/9/2001

166. A.O.Akande S.A.N. 10/9/2001

167. Chief T.A.Ezeobi S.A.N. 10/9/200 1

168. Mrs. O.A.Adekoya S.A.N. 10/9/2001

169. D.N.A.Ibegbu S.A.N. 10/9/2001

170. A.B.Mahmoud S.A.N. 10/9/2001

171. A. Akpomudje S.A.N. 10/9/2001

172. A.A. Kayode S.A.N. 10/9/2001

173. M.D. Belgore S.A.N. 10/9/2001

174. A. Nwaiwu S.A.N. 10/9/20018

175. Akintola M. Adeniyi  S.A.N. 10/9/2001

176. D. D. Dodo S,A.N 10/9/2001

177. Robinson Israel Chukwuma Iweka S.A.N. 9/9/2002

178. Adebambo Adesanya S.A.N. 9/9/2002

179. Prof. Yemi Osinbajo S.A.N. 9/9/2002

180. Ganiyu Adekunle Adetola Kasim S.A.N 9/9/2002

181. Babatunde Aderanti Fashanu S.A.N. 9/9/2002

182. Prof. Taiwo Adebayo Osipitan  S.A.N 9/9/2002

183. Johana Obika Aghimien S.A.N. 9/9/2 002

184. Dr. Bolanle Olawale Babalakin S.A.N 9/9/2002

185. Prof. Ignatius Akaayar Ayua S.A.N. 9/9/2002

186. Onyechi Tkpeazu  S.A.N 9/9/2002

187. Nnaemeka Ngige  S.A.N 9/9/2002

188. Kabiru Taminu Turaki S.A.N. 9/9/2002

189. Prof. Joe Irukwu S.A.N 9/9/2002

190. Fatai Aremu Osho S.A.N 9/9/2002

191. Mrs. Anayo Offiah S.A.N 8/9/2003

192. Henry Odein Ajumogobia S.A.N. 8/9/2003

193. Peter Olufemi Atoyebi S.A.N. 8/9/2003

194. Ighodalo E. Irnadegbelo S.A.N. 8/9/2003

195. Chris Uche S.A.N 8/9/2003

196. Jude Nnodum S.A.N 8/9/2003

197. Paul Usoro S.A.N 8/9/2003

198. Tokunbo Eniola Williams S.A.N 8/9/2003

199. Ericsson Omotayo Oyetibo S.A.N 8/9/2003

200. Charles Adeyemi Candide-Johnson S.A.N 8/9/20039

201. Obiora Obianwu S.A.N 8/9/2003

202. Michael Afolabi Fashanu S.A.N 8/9/2003

203. Oluseeni Aaron Okunloye S.A.N (Deceased) 8/9/2003

204. Mamman Mike Osuman S.A.N 13/9/2004

205. Senator Victor N. Ndoma-Egba S.A.N 13/9/2004

206. Ayodeji Oladipo Sasegbon S.A.N 13/9/2004

207. Alade Abiola Agbabiaka S.A.N. 13/9/2004

208. Lucius Ezeaka Nwosu S.A.N 13/9/2004

209. Olayiwola Moronmubo Babatunde S.A.N 13/9/2004

210. Chief Ajijola Aribisala S.A.N 13/9/2004

211. Dafe Jude Akpedeye S.A.N 13 ‘9/2004

212. Michael Igbokwe S.A.N 13/9/2004

213. Omoruyi Augustine Omonuwa, S .A.N 13/9/2004

214. Patrick I. Nwankwo Ikwueto S.A.N 13/9/2004

215. B.E.T. Nwofor S.A.N 13/9/2004

216. Fidelis Hilary lzuka Oditah S.A.N 139/2004

217. Adetunji Adetokunbo Oyeyipo  S.A.N 13/9/2004

218. Babatunde Fashola S.A.N 13/9/2004

219. Dr. Koleade Adeniji Abayomi S.A.N 26/9/2005

220. Prof. Amos Agbe Utuama S.A.N. 26/9/2005

221. Erik Oba Nsugbe S.A.N. 26/9/2005

222. Donald Ibezirn Udogu S.A.N 2 6/9/2 0 0 5

223. Bernard lyorlyam Hom S.A.N 26/9/2005

224. Emmanuel Oludele Akinsola Idowu S.A.N 26/9/2005

225. Cyprian Okafor Anah S.A.N 26/9/2005

226. Ifedayo Adams Adedipe S.A.N 26/9/200510

227. Assam Ekanem Assam S.A.N 26/9/2005

228. Gbolahan Olabukola Akintunde Elias S.A.N 2 6/9/2 00 5

229. Titus Olasupo Ashaolu S.A.N 26/9/2005

230. Pius Ademu Akubo S.A.N 26/9/2005

231. Mobolaji Olukayode Ayorinde S.A.N 26/9/2005

232. Ezekiel Adebayo Adenipekun S.A.N 26/9/2005

233. Olukemi Adekunle Pinheiro S.A.N 24/9/2006

234. Nwobidike Nwanodi S.A.N 24/9/2006

235. Adebayo O.Adelodun S.A.N 24/9/2006

236. Okwuchukwu Ugolo S.A.N 24/9/2006

237. Charles A.B. Akparanta S.A.N 24/9/2006

238. Joe Odey Agi S.A.N 24/9/2006

239. Nathaniel O.O. Oke S.A.N 24/9/2006

240. Mohammed Bello Adoke S.A.N 24/9/2006

241. Oluyele Delano S.A.N 24/9/2006

242. Markus Y. Saleh S.A.N 24/9/2006

243. Saka Abimbola Isau S.A.N 24/9/2006

244. Olawale A.Akoni S.A.N 24/9/2006

245. Oladejo O. Lamikanra S.A.N 24/9/2006

246. Duro Adeleye S.A.N 24/9/2006

247. Michael Aondoakaa S.A.N 24/9/2006

248. A.B. Kalejaiye S.A.N 24/9/2006

249. Roland Ifoyah Otaru S.A.N 24/9/2006

250. Olasupo Shasore S.A.N 24/9/2006

251. Richard A. Ogunwole S.A.N 24/9/2006

252. Adedapo Akinrele S.A.N 24/9/200611

253. Robert L. Clarke S.A.N 24/9/2006

254. Anthony G. Ikoli S.A.N 24/9/2006

255. Ibrahim Isiaku, S.A.N 24/9/2006

256. D.A. Ijalaye S.A.N 24/9/2006

257. M.I. Jegede S.A.N 24/9/2006

258. E. Azinge S.A.N 24/9/2006

259. Julius Oladele Adesina S.A.N 24/9/2006

260. Babatunde Ademola Ajibade S.A.N 12/12/2007

261. Solomon Ukaegbu Akuma S.A.N 12/12/2007

262. Augustine Oyarekhua Alageh S.A.N 12/12/2007

263. Sunday Ibrahim Ameh S.A.N 12/12/2007

264. Ahizechukwu Benbella Anachebem S.A.N 12/12/2007

265. John Olusola Baiyeeshea S.A.N 12/12/2007

266. Paul Erokoro, S.A.N 12/12/2007

267. Miannaya Aja Essien S.A.N 12/12/2007

268. Olagoke Oluyerni Fakunle S.A.N 12/12/2007

269. Ocholi James S.A.N 12/12/2007

270. Uchema Gregory Nwokedi S.A.N 12/12/2007

271. Francis Chukwuemeka Ofodile S.A.N 12/12/2007

272. Okunade Isreal Olorundare S.A.N 12/12/2007

273. Okechukwu Emmanuel WaIi S.A.N 12/12/2007

274. Prof. Charles Udenze Ilegbune S.A.N 12/12/2007

275. Prof. Musa Yakubu S.A.N 12/12/2007

276 Charles Ajuyah S.A.N 16/12/2008

277 Adetokunbo Omorogie Okeaya-Inneh S.A.N 16/12/2008

278 Sagay Omatsoguwa Mogbeyi S.A.N 16/12/200812

279 Andrew Osaro Eghobarnien S.A.N 16/12/2008

280 Oladipo Aigbedo Okpeseyi S.A.N 16/12/2008

281 Charles Adogah S.A.N 16/12/2008

282 Clernent O. I. Okwusogu S.A.N 16/12/2008

283 Donald Chika Denwigwe S.A.N 16/12/2008

284 Ulasi Raleke Obiefuna S.A.N 16/12/2008

285 Njemanze ken Chukwuma Ohir S.A.N 16/12/2008

286 Eze Duru-Iheoma S.A.N 16/12/2008

287 Kola Babalola S.A.N 16/12/2008

288 Karina Tunyata S.A.N 16/12/2008

289 Eyitayo Jegede S.A.N 16/12/2008

290 Babajide Olatokunbo Koku S.A.N 16/12/2008

291 Fagbohunlu John Babatunde S.A.N. 16/12/2008

292 Daramola Lucas Olu S.A.N 16/12/2008

293 Alhaji Olasunkanmi Alimi Sanusi S.A.N 16/12/2008

294 Lawal Mohammed Pedro S.A.N 16/12/2008

295 Olabisi Oluyemi Soyebo S.A.N 16/12/2008

296 Lawal Rabbana Raflu Adeyanju S.A.N 16/12/2008

297 Anthony Aondoakaa Ijohor S.A.N 16/12/2008

298 Abubakar Malami S.A.N 16/12/2008

299 Suleiman Abdulkadir S.A.N 16/12/2008

300 Hon. Sebastine Tar Tenger S.A.N 16/12/2008

301 Nella Andem Ewa S.A.N 12/4/2009

302 Joseph Nwobike S.A.N 12/4/2009

303 Offiong Effiong Bassey Offiong S.A.N. 12/4/20 10

304 Mike A.A. Ozekhorne, S.A.N 12/4/201013

305 SylviaE. Shinaba, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

306 Dorothy Udeme Ufot, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

307 Francis Dike, S.A.N 12/4/2010

308 Chukwuina Uchenna Ekomaru, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

309 Arthur Obi Okafor, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

310 Etigwe Uwa, S.A.N 12/4/2010

311 Jadegoke Adebanjo  Badejo, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

312 Abiodun Ishola Layonu, S.A.N 12/4/2010

313 Adekunle Babatunde Ogunba, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

314 George M. Oguntade, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

315 C.O.Toyin Pinheiro, S.A.N 12/4/2010

316 Olusina R. Sofola, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

317 Samuel E. Mosugu, S.A.N 12/4/2010

318 Andrew I. Chukwuemerie, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

319 Fabian Ikenna Ajogwu, S.A.N 12/4/20 10

320 Pat Onegbedan SAN 26/08/2011

321 Isaac Nwazue Ijioma SAN   26/08/2011

322 Agatha Obiozo Mbamali SAN 26/08/2011

323 Dan Ose Okoh SAN 26/08/2011

324 Kenneth Ekene Mozia SAN 26/08/201114

325 Yahaya Mahmood SAN 26/08/2011

326 Ferdinard Oshioke Orbih SAN 26/08/2011

327 Olanrewaju Ayodele Ogunlesi SAN 26/08/2011

328 Anthonia Titilayo Akinlawon SAN 26/08/2011

329 Oluwemimo Adepoju Revell Ogunde SAN 26/08/2011

330 Prof. Imran Oluwole Smith (Academics) SAN 26/08/2011

331 Ikechukwu Ezechukwu SAN 26/08/2011

332 Okechukwu Amechi SAN 26/08/2011

333 Nnadi Jude Ositadinma  SAN 26/08/2011

334 Abiodun Jelili Owonikoko SAN 26/08/2011

335 Faye Dikio SAN 26/08/2011

336 Garba Shamtu Pwul SAN 26/08/2011

337 Granville Isetima Abibo SAN 26/08/2011

338 Samuel Tomi Ologunorisa SAN 26/08/2011

339 Hassan Muhammad Liman SAN 26/08/2011

340 Babatunde Adekunle Aiku SAN 26/08/2011

341 Dr. Peter Terkaa Akper (Academics) SAN 26/08/2011

342 Adesegun Muhammed Ajibola SAN 26/08/2011

343 Yakubu Chonoko Maikyau SAN 26/08/2011

344 Okon Nkanu Efut SAN 26/08/2011

345 David Oghenovo Ezaga SAN 26/08/2011

346 James Uko Kalu Igwe (Academics) SAN 26/08/201115

347 Norrison Ibinabo Quakers SAN 26/08/2011

348 Jibrin Samuel Okutepa SAN 26/08/2011

349 Solomon Eyibio Umoh SAN 26/08/2011

13 September 2012

Femi Falana SAN 13/09/2012

Professor Yemi Akiseye George SAN 13/09/2012

Rotimi Jacobs SAN 13/09/2012

Adekunle Theophilus Oyesanya SAN 13/09/2012

Francis Chuka Agbo SAN 13/09/2012

Paul C. Ananaba SAN 13/09/2012

Akinlaja Dayo Moses SAN 13/09/2012

Ahmed Raji SAN 13/09/2012

Dakas Clement James Dakas SAN 13/09/2012

Joy Okungbowa Adesina SAN 13/09/2012

Connie-Jeanne Aremu SAN 13/09/2012

Mahmud Abubakar Magaji SAN 13/09/2012

Ogwu James Onoja SAN 13/09/2012

Garuba Usman Tetengi SAN 13/09/2012

Henry Oghogho Ogbodu SAN 13/09/2012

Selekeowei Larry SAN 13/09/2012

Abenny O. Mohammed SAN 13/09/2012

Charles Nwanne Obishai SAN 13/09/2012

Rotimi Oluseyi Oguneso SAN 13/09/2012

Luke Chukwudi Illogu SAN 13/09/2012

Oluseye Samuel Opasanya SAN 13/09/2012

Aderoja Claudius Olum SAN 13/09/2012

...................................................................

Disclaimer: Nigerian Law and Nigerian Law Resources and their author and publisher make no claim whatsoever to the correctness of this directory or list of Senior Advocates of Nigeria, and, consequently, cannot be held liable in any manner whatsoever for any error or inaccuracy therein. The official information on Senior Advocates of Nigeria is maintained by the Supreme Court of Nigeria.



Forthcoming Nigerian Law eBooks (Full-text Nigerian Federal Legislation With Notes)

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999: Full Text With Notes (All Amendments Incorporated)

Nigerian Law of Evidence: Full Text of the Evidence Act 2011 With Notes

Nigerian Company Law: Full Text of Nigerian Companies and Allied Matters Act 1990 With Notes

Some Nigerian Federal Laws (Laws of the Federation of Nigeria)


1.  Abandoned Properties Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provisions for the sale, registration and maintenance of abandoned properties by the Implementation Committee set up for the purpose.


2.  Academic Staff Union of Universities (Proscription and Prohibition from Participation in Trade Union Activities) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to proscribe and prohibit the Academic Staff Union of Universities from participating in trade union activities in Nigeria or any part thereof.


3.  Acquisition of Assets (British Petroleum Company Limited) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provisions for the transfer of all shares held by the British Petroleum Company Limited in BP Nigeria Ltd and all interests appertaining thereto in the Shell BP Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation; and the payment of compensation for such shares in accordance with laid down formulae.


4.  Acts Authentication Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provision for the authentication and recording of Acts of National Assembly.

 

5. Adjustment of Boundaries (Cross River and Imo States) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provision for implementing certain decisions of the Kaloma Ali Boundaries Ascertainment Commission and for making appropriate adjustment of the boundaries of those areas affected.


6. Administrative Staff College of Nigeria Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provide for the establishment and objects of the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria and the management of the college.


7. Advertising Practitioners (Registration, Etc.) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to establish a Council for Advertising Practitioners and to make provisions for the control of the practice of the profession of advertising.


8. Advisers to Military Governors, Etc. (Ex-Gratia Award) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provide for the payment of ex-gratia award to Advisers to Military Governors.

 

9. Advisory Council on Religious Affairs Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provide for the establishment of an Advisory Council on Religious Affairs charged with responsibility for fostering religious harmony in the Country.


10. African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to enable effect to be given in the Federal Republic of Nigeria of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights made in Banjul on the 19th day of January, 1981 and for purposes connected therewith.


11. Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute Act (Nigeria)

An Act to establish a training organisation known as the Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute to provide among other things, detailed identification of management training needs in agricultural and rural development organisations throughout the country, and to develop and implement training programmes to meet the need of managers in the agricultural and rural development sector of the economy.


12. Agricultural (Control of importation) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provision for regulating the importation of articles for the purpose of controlling plant diseases and pests.


13. Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund Act (Nigeria)

An Act to establish an Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund into which shall be subscribed a certain sum to provide guarantees for loans granted for agricultural purposes by any bank.


14. Ahmadu Bello University (Transitional Provisions) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to effect a take-over of the Ahmadu Bello University by the Federal Government and establish a Provisional Council as an interim governing body of the University and purposes connected herewith.


15. Air Force Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provision for the establishment, government and discipline of the Nigerian Air Force and of an Air Force Reserve and to provide for other matter connected therewith or ancillary thereto.


16. Allocation of Revenue (Federation Accounts, Etc.) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to prescribe the basis for distribution of revenue accruing to the Federation Account between the Federal and State Governments and the Local Government Councils in the States; the formula for distribution amongst the States inter se; the proportion of the total revenue of each State to be contributed to the State Joint Local Government Account; and for other purposes connected therewith.


17. Anatomy Act (Nigeria)

An Act to regulate School of Anatomy.


18. Animal Diseases (Control) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provide for the control and prevention of animal diseases, with the object of preventing the introduction and spread of infectious and contagious diseases among animals, hatcheries and poultries in Nigeria.


19. Arbitration and Conciliation Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provide a unified legal frame work for the fair and efficient settlement of commercial disputes by arbitration and conciliation; and to make applicable the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards (New York Convention) to any award made in Nigeria or in any contracting State arising out of international commercial arbitration.


20. Architects (Registration, Etc.) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provide for the registration of the profession of architects by the Architects Registration Council of Nigeria, and for all other matters connected with that profession.


21. Armed Forces Comfort Fund Act (Nigeria)

An Act to establish the Armed Forces Comfort Fund primarily for the provision of comfort and relief to the members of the Armed Forces.


22. Armed Forces (Disciplinary Proceedings) (Special Provisions) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to enable the appropriate Council to take disciplinary proceedings against any person subject to military law irrespective of the institution or contemplation of criminal proceedings against him in any court on substantially the same grounds as that on which he is to be disciplined.


23. Armed Forces Pensions Act (Nigeria)

An Act consolidate all enactments dealing with pensions, war pensions and disability benefits and gratuities for members of the armed force of the Federation, taking into account the new pensions and gratuities scales devised for the armed forces.


24. Armed Forces (Verification and Settlement of Contracts) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to provide for the verification of claims arising from contracts and other arrangements entered into purported to have been entered into (during and after the civil war) for the supply of goods or the rendering of services to the armed forces.


25. Army Colour (Prohibition of Use) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to prohibit the use of army green colour (as specified in the Schedule) by vehicles other than Nigerian Army vehicles.


26. Associated Gas Re- Injection Act (Nigeria)

An Act to compel every company producing oil and gas in Nigeria to submit preliminary programmes for gas re-injection and detailed plans for implementation of gas re-injection.


27. Bank Employees, Etc. (Declaration of Assets) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provisions for the declaration of assets by employees of banks operating in Nigeria and to empower the President, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces to extend its application to other category of persons.


28. Banking Act (Nigeria)

An Act to define banking, make provisions for the establishment, licensing, operation, control and supervision of banks.

 

29. Banking (Freezing of Accounts) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to empower the President to, where he suspects or believes that any person has been involved in certain offences including bribery and abuse of office, issue directions causing investigation into the person’s account including restriction of the operation of such account in accordance wit the terms of the directions.


30. Bankruptcy Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provisions for declaring as bankrupt any person who can not pay his debts of a specified amount and to disqualify him from holding certain elective and other public officers or from practising any regulated profession (except as an employee).


31. Banks (Motor Vehicle Loans) (Miscellaneous Provisions)  Act (Nigeria)

An Act to prohibit the sale, disposal or parting with possession of a motor vehicle on which a bank loan is still outstanding and requires the Licensing Authority to enter all particulars on the loan in the Register.


32. Bayero University Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provision for the establishment and incorporation of the Bayero University and to make comprehensive provisions for its due administration.


33. Bees (Import Control and Management) Act (Nigeria)

An Act to make provisions for the importation and management of bees and apicultural material.




Nigerian Law